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Credit- Degree applicable
Effective Quarter: Fall 2015

I. Catalog Information

BIOL 6A
Form and Function in the Biological World
6 Unit(s)

 

(See general education pages for the requirement this course meets.)

Requisites: (Not open to students with credit in BIOL 6AH.)

Prerequisite: CHEM 1A or 25 with a grade of C or better; or satisfactory score on the Chemistry Placement Exam.

Advisory: EWRT 1A or EWRT 1AH or ESL 5.

Hours: Lec Hrs: 48.00
Lab Hrs: 72.00
Out of Class Hrs: 96.00
Total Student Learning Hrs: 216.00

Description: Introduction to biology and scientific methods for students beginning the biology major series. Study of the structure and physiological processes of living organisms, with an emphasis on plants and animals.


Student Learning Outcome Statements (SLO)

 

• Student Learning Outcome: Analyze and compare the process of homeostasis as applied to common physiological processes across higher taxonomy.


 

• Student Learning Outcome: Develop observational skills in the context of scientific methodologies.


 

• Student Learning Outcome: Contrast the Linnaen traditional phylogenetic and cladistic processes of taxonomy.


II. Course Objectives

A.Explore science as a process and assess its role in building a reliable body of knowledge accessible to the global community.
B.Reconstruct the historical development of systematics and the classification of living organisms.
C.Articulate the characteristics and challenges shared by all living organisms.
D.Introduce the cell as the fundamental unit of life and differentiate its basic features.
E.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of protists.
F.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Fungi.
G.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Plantae.
H.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Animalia.

III. Essential Student Materials

 None

IV. Essential College Facilities

 Student access to Internet and e-mail; multi-media lecture and lab rooms; biology laboratory with necessary equipment (such as microscopes, slides, relevant specimens, etc.)

V. Expanded Description: Content and Form

A.Explore science as a process and assess its role in building a reliable body of knowledge accessible to the global community.
1.Examine the use of scientific method and the development of testable hypotheses, as applied to investigations in biology.
a.Apply inductive and deductive reasoning.
b.Explain the steps of the hypothetico-deductive method.
c.Use the scientific method as a tool of inquiry in and beyond the laboratory.
2.Discuss the relative merits of the peer-review process distinguishing scientific journals from popular media.
B.Reconstruct the historical development of systematics and the classification of living organisms.
1.Discuss the role of Carolus Linnaeus in developing the discipline of taxonomy.
a.Create a taxonomic hierarchy to classify organisms using relative similarities in body form.
b.Categorize the taxonomic levels used in Linnaean hierarchy.
c.Demonstrate binomial nomenclature to correctly cite the universal scientific name of a species.
2.Inspect the crucial modification of the Linnaean hierarchy to a 5-kingdom model based upon contrasts in cell form and function.
3.Explain the rationale behind the modern 3-domain/6-kingdom model of classification based upon contrasts in molecular structure distinguishing archaea, bacteria, and eukarya.
4.Compare the criteria used in traditional taxonomy to those used in cladistics.
C.Articulate the characteristics and challenges shared by all living organisms.
1.Summarize the characteristics of life.
2.Define homeostasis using illustrative examples.
3.Discuss evolution as the foundation for diversity of life.
D.Introduce the cell as the fundamental unit of life and differentiate its basic features.
1.Inspect the characteristics and requirements common to all cells.
2.Compare prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
3.Summarize eukaryotic cell structure and the general functions of organelles.
4.Examine the limits to cell size and advantages of multicellularity.
5.Describe water and solute movements across selectively permeable cell membranes.
6.Examine and describe cell division (mitosis and meiosis) and cell cycles, emphasizing the relevance to life cycles.
E.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of protists.
1.Summarize the characteristics and changing definitions of protists.
2.Discuss the polyphyletic nature of protists and the possible relationships between groups of protists and the rest of the eukaryotes.
3.Expand on the function of organelles allowing single-celled organisms to accomplish complex biological functions.
F.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Fungi.
1.Summarize the characteristics of fungi.
2.Discuss the correlation of modified cell cycles to different fungal life cycles.
3.Inspect the ecological importance of fungi and critical symbioses with plants.
G.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Plantae.
1.Evaluate the evolution of plant groups to a terrestrial habitat.
a.Contrast an aquatic environment to a terrestrial one in terms of plant adaptations.
b.Compare the four main plant groups to illustrate the evolutionary process of adapting to land.
2.Explore plant reproduction and life cycles while analyzing the evolutionary processes that shaped plant reproductive strategies.
a.Analyze alternation of generations in the life cycle of plants.
b.Compare gametophytes and sporophytes of the four terrestrial plant groups (bryophytes, pterophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms) in terms of their role in the plant life cycle with emphasis on the consistency of alternation of generations.
c.Microscopically examine the gamete producing and spore producing structures of the four terrestrial plant groups.
3.Investigate plant growth and development.
a.Describe meristematic tissues and their role.
b.Inspect the functions and structures of plant cells including the ground, vascular and dermal tissues and the cells that comprise them.
c.Compare, both microscopically and macroscopically, the roots, stems and flowers of monocots and dicots.
d.Compare, both microscopically and macroscopically, primary and secondary growth in vascular plants.
4.Examine plant exchange and transport processes and structures.
a.Explore how plants obtain nutrients from the environment.
b.Discuss the importance of mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in plant nutrition and evolution.
c.Analyze how plants exchange gases with the environment while maintaining water balance.
d.Describe passive movement and active transport (proton pumps and co-transport) of solutes in plant cells, using illustrative examples.
e.Evaluate the movement of water and dissolved solutes from roots to shoots including cohesion, adhesion and transpiration.
f.Discuss the regulation of stomatal opening.
g.Describe the movement of water and sugars laterally through a stem or root.
h.Examine the movement of sugars from source to sink.
H.Examine the structure, physiological processes and diversity of Kingdom Animalia.
1.Survey the basic development of animals and the evolutionary trends in animal body plans.
a.Discuss cell and tissue specialization in embryonic development.
b.Compare the development of an acoelom, pseudocoelom and true coelom.
c.Identify symmetry, cephalization, complexity of digestive tracts and segmentation as variations on animal body plans.
2.Distinguish the various tissues that comprise the animal body.
3.Use illustrative examples of animal phyla (such as Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Chordata) to illustrate animal body plans, tissues, animal systems, modes of locomotion and lifecycles.
4.Explore animal nutrition.
a.Identify various mechanisms animals use to obtain food.
b.Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion.
c.Compare incomplete and complete digestive tracts in terms of form and function.
d.Inspect the vertebrate digestive tract structure and function, using examples such as humans, ruminants and birds.
e.Contrast the specializations of digestive systems in herbivores versus carnivores.
5.Explore gas exchange in animals.
a.Assess the limits of diffusion on body size and metabolic rates.
b.Discuss the functions of respiratory systems in animals and discuss how these functions are accomplished in animals without a respiratory system.
c.Evaluate the characteristics common to all respiratory surfaces.
d.Contrast terrestrial and aquatic habitats and their effects on the evolution of respiratory systems in animals.
e.Compare gills and lungs in terms of structure and function using examples such as fish, birds and mammals.
f.Explain the role of hemoglobin and other respiratory pigments.
g.Analyze the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli, capillaries and tissues.
h.Formulate Fick's Law and the diffusion of gases in the respiratory systems.
i.Use gas exchange equations to calculate rates of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange for organisms in various situations.
6.Examine circulation in animals.
a.Discuss the functions of circulatory systems in animals and discuss how these functions are accomplished in animals without a circulatory system.
b.Compare and contrast an open circulatory system to a closed circulatory system using illustrative examples.
c.Inspect the structure and function of the vertebrate circulatory systems including the heart, blood vessels and blood.
d.Evaluate four chambered, three chambered and two chambered hearts.
7.Explore osmoregulation and excretion in animals.
a.Discuss the functions of excretory systems in animals and discuss how these functions are accomplished in animals without an excretory system.
b.Contrast osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
c.Distinguish the types of nitrogenous wastes and discuss the relative physiological advantages of each type.
d.Describe and compare various excretory systems of invertebrates.
e.Inspect various excretory systems of vertebrates, with emphasis on the mammalian system.
f.Analyze nervous system and hormonal control of osmoregulation and excretion.
8.Explore thermoregulation in animals.
a.Contrast ectotherms and endotherms.
b.Contrast poikilotherms and homeotherms.
c.Investigate and compare mechanisms used in the maintenance of body temperature including physiological and behavioral adjustments.
d.Evaluate evolutionary trends and adaptations in animals inhabiting severely hot or cold environments.
9.Explore reproduction in animals.
a.Compare asexual and sexual reproduction.
b.Compare monoecious and dioecious reproductive systems.
c.Distinguish various methods of gamete transfer.
d.Evaluate oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous reproduction.
e.Discuss hormonal and environmental controls of reproductive cycles.

VI. Assignments

A.Readings from required text, laboratory manual and supplemental sources.
B.Laboratory exercises including observations, descriptions and critical analysis of comparative anatomical structures and physiological functions.
C.Collaborative exercises developing fluency in seminal concepts such as scientific methodology or systematics.

VII. Methods of Instruction

 Lecture and visual aids
Discussion and problem solving performed in class
In-class exploration of internet sites or biological simulations
Collaborative learning and small group exercises
Laboratory experience which involve students in directed exercises of observations and descriptions of biological specimens
Laboratory discussion sessions and quizzes that evaluate the laboratory exercises

VIII. Methods of Evaluating Objectives

A.Lecture exams that appraise comprehension and require synthesis and application of course material.
B.Practical laboratory exams covering accurate identification of biological specimens and structures and precise explanation of their functions.
C.Evaluation of collaborative exercises demonstrating progressive proficiency in seminal biological concepts.
D.Final lecture examination that requires students to demonstrate the ability to summarize, integrate and critically analyze concepts examined throughout the course.

IX. Texts and Supporting References

A.Examples of Primary Texts and References
1.Reece, Jane, et al, "Campbell Biology," 10th ed. Menlo Park, CA: Pearson Education, 2014.
2.Instructor Selected/Designed Laboratory Manual
B.Examples of Supporting Texts and References
1.Brusca, Richard and Gary Brusca, "Invertebrates," 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Press, 2003
2.Elson, L.M., "The Zoology Coloring Book," New York, NY: Harper-Collins Publishers, Inc., 1982.
3.Guyton, Arthur C. and J. Hall. "Textbook of Medical Physiology", 12th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. 2011.
4.Hickman, Cleveland P., et al, "Integrated Principles of Zoology," 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2010.
5.Hickman, Cleveland P., Lee B. Kats and Susan L. Keen, "Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of Zoology," 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2010.
6.Hill, Richard, G. Wyse, and M. Anderson, "Animal Physiology," 3rd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Press, 2012.
7.Levetin, Estelle, Karen McMahon, and Rob Reinsvold, "Laboratory Manual for Applied Botany" New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001
8.Lytle, C. F., and J.R. Meyer, "General Zoology Laboratory Guide," 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 2009.
9.Miller, S. A., Harley, J. P., "Zoology," 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2009.
10.Niesen, T., "The Marine Biology Coloring Book," 2nd ed. New York, NY: Harper-Collins Publishers, Inc., 2000.
11.Raven, P., et al. "Biology," 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2008.
12.Raven, P., et al. "Biology of Plants," 8th ed. W.H. Freeman, 2013.
13.Sadava, David, et al, "Life: The Science of Biology," 8th ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Press, 2008.
14.Stern, Kingsley, J. Bidlack and S. Jansky, "Introductory Plant Biology," 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2008.
15.Tortora, Gerard and Bryan Derrickson, "Principles of Anatomy and Physiology" 13th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012
16.Van De Graff, K. V., and J. L. Crawley, "A Photographic Atlas for the Biology Laboratory," 7th ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2013.
17.Vaughan, T. A., Ryan, J. M., Czaplewski, N.J., "Mammalogy," 4th ed. Orlando, FL: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.

X. Lab Topics

A.Scientific methodology and experimental design
B.Life cycles and systematics of plants
C.Plant tissues and vascular function
D.Plant reproductive strategies and anatomy
E.Structure and life cycles of fungi
F.Animal tissues and development
G.Form and function of selected animal phyla, such as porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, echinodermata, and/or chordata
H.Vertebrate structure and variation